Thursday, February 12, 2009

The Impact of Islamic Civilization on the Historical Development of Civilization


The Impact of Islamic Civilization on the Historical Development of Civilization

Civilization is not a private property of a group or nation, but a common heritage to all who have contributed in building it. Thus, they have the right to enjoy its outcomes since it is a nationalized industry for all nations.

In order to fulfill the concept of civilization, it is important to search in its core. Otherwise, it will be a body without a spirit. Hence, some historicists have noticed that the essence of civilization lies in the spiritual and the moral side of the individuals and the groups, without ignoring material and aesthetic considerations.

In some phases of history, wars are means for exchanging ideas and experiences. When wars have stopped, there start a stage of understanding, consideration, knowledge, examining the others values and cultures, and selecting what is useful to reach a step of development.

The Arabs have spread all over the earth, faced all difficulties, overridden wilderness, fought battles for Islam. In all their actions, they have been allayed by victory and success because of their tolerance; the policy they have applied with all who disagree with them, setting the best example of not discriminating the others.

The sublime principles, which the law of the Islamic countries were based on, aim to protect all of their citizens in light of Islam's call for coexistence and mutual respect with people of other religions. Such Islamic tolerance has led to a harmony among the citizens of the country, consequently, achieving a development in human thought and a new sort of activity in different fields which has not been known before. They all have contributed in making the Islamic Civilization to be the first international civilization in human history, which has stimulated other nations to come out to the world of light and accept an era of science and civilization.

The tolerance of Islam is evident when Islam entered Andalusia, accompanied with an intellectual and a spiritual freedom and released the citizens from restrictions. Despite of the presence of the special educational system of Christians and Jews, Muslims did not have any problem in discussing their historical and religious heritage, they did not monopolize their culture, thought and knowledge. In contrary, they allowed other people's children to join Muslims' in "Kuttab"; where teachers teach their pupil Qur'an and other subjects related to Islam and Arabic. Moreover, some Jews participated in scientific seminars in the palaces of the Caliphs or in mosques, which contributed greatly on the intellectual and the cultural awakening of the Jews. 

In the Islamic Empire, equality in rights among individuals had been an ideal example and model for others to follow, made them a unified society. Muslims and Non Muslims were teachers and students for each other. Thus, Muslims worked on all types of human arts and science, therefore, the cultural and the human thought method had entered to the countries, which were not ruled by Islam, either by Muslims who traveled to foreign countries for one reason or another, or by Non-Muslims who came to the Islamic countries for studding.

At the time when Europe had lived in ignorance, darkness and fanaticism, Andalusia enjoyed the light of knowledge and development, as the libraries were full of thousands of publications in various sciences, arts, and literature. After the Jewish thought was limited by a narrow religious authoring, they dealt with all various sciences, which was something they believed- before living among Muslims- to be a form of infidelity and atheism. Consequently, their medical, philosophical and astronomical publications had increased. In addition, their thought absorbed sciences, arts and literature that had been affected by Islamic influences. Eventually, a number of Jewish intellectuals and writers had emerged, who found in tracing Muslim intellectuals, writers and thinkers a great impact in awakening their own civilization.

When the Arabs' cultures and writings in philosophy, medicine, mathematics and astronomy had astonished the emerged European culture, schools of translators were established, to translate the Arabic literature to Latin. In addition, these schools had translated the Arabic translations of the ancient Greek literature, which was unknown until the Arabs had translated it. In virtue of these Arabic translations, Europe had the chance to look at Greek literature that lost its authorships.

The impact of Islamic Civilization had extended to include not only sciences and arts but also life and behavior in many fields. Two examples should be enough to illustrate what that means: 

1- The external appearance:

the Islamic environment imposed on Muslims to care of their appearance, purity, and to follow good behaviors, which affected even the Non-Muslims. For instance, many books of Jews have contained whole chapters regarding politeness and straight behavior, along with the cleanness of body and clothes. They even started to take off their shoes in front of temples just like Muslims do when they enter Mosques, along with other behaviors which they were not used to before.

2- The treatment of woman:

the Jews said that their law had stipulated that the husband had the right to do with his wife whatever he wants to do, as Talmud did not respect woman and her humanity, as it is mentioned: ( blessings for you God because you did not create me as a woman). And by the Islam Effect, Jews allowed woman to go to the temple in respectful dress, and specified for her another place inside the temple, then Jews were forced to change this saying: ( blessings for you God because you created me as you want). 
The wife was not able to request divorce for her husband hardness, or for his inhuman behavior. However, they forced the husband to give the wife the food and the life necessities by the effect of Islam and Muslims, then they allowed divorce when the husband abuse her wife.

Finally, on the light of Islamic civilization, Europe has awakened from its deep sleep, or we can say, it was born from the Islamic civilization, and mother and daughter were.


Through our faith, we live all together in peace


Through our faith, we live all together in peace

Let us show our inner loving bonds, the seed of goodness that exists in us, let us irrigate it by our nature of loving humanity. It is our real choice and freedom, and the path of prophets, both of us believe in heavenly religions, which established goodness, giving, cooperation, and justice for all humanity since the existence of Adam; the father of all human, up to now. The religions' values are still the essence of life; the life cord, and the source of comfort and peace for all humankind. The three religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam wish to spread justice, love, and heartiness among mankind. These three major religions are the apostle. What link between these religions is their aim to bond humanity by love. The civilizations that provide us with the real meaning of how to cohabit together. These were the messages of Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them. They wanted the well-being of humanity and they aspired to spread virtues and eliminate injustice and tyranny from the world

Brothers and sisters in humanity, the students of American and European Universities. We agree with these ideals and principles and we believe in them for their similarity in the three religions. We have bonded with one goal and one view represented in purity, goodness, justice, forgiveness, and loving others. moreover, these principle can never be changed, let's live as we were taught, our religion Islam is calling to these beautiful values

Brothers and sisters in humanity,,
We know that each nation has deviated tracks, and we know that evil is found in all nation regardless of its religion, and unfortunately. evil trends emerge from time to time aiming to get the goodness in the human heart. In the other side, we believe that goodness and love are found in all nations regardless of their religions and we are against the attempts of spreading the culture of evil and hate. Therefore, goodness, love, and equality are the bases of religion for Jews, Christians, or Muslims. Thus, will you accept our invitation for unity and to track this light side, and to irrigate our beautiful humanity plant, goodness, love, and peace side among us. We hope to begin here, together, to refuse all the types of hate and evil, and to build bases of cooperation for humanity goodness

Some organizations practice pressures through continuous campaigns to abuse all religions, especially Islam, aiming to achieve political or personal gains. This extreme and unjustified mistake root the reputing and hate, and it is the fuel of enemy for the long run, and classifying culture and ethnics, which should be abhorred by humanity and civilization. These organizations work through all media channels to present many images of hatred and deformation. Let us see together the aims of these campaigns, which might be unknown to others

1- Gaining votes and support in the presidential elections and parliament seats as basic goal on the expense of balancing, wisdom, freedom bases, and without considering the catastrophic results, which might emerge in the future
2- Dividing the world nations into hostile parties, and groups fighting each other and suffering of terrorism dominancy due to the clear injustice through these accused campaigns

3- Spreading the culture of frequent hatred and enmity amongst humankind, closing the doors of mercy, meeting, and cooperation to build fixed bases in all fields.
4- Generalizing the humankind mistakes on wide group of people, including those who claim to uphold peace, which made issues worse and more complicated

5- Ignoring fixed facts related to the rights of living in dignity and freedom without any political or parties influences, which increase the problem
6- Rooting the discriminative view toward the doctrines and rituals of other religions

7- Changing facts regarding Islam and spread it among westerns who lack knowledge regarding the sublime truth of Islam , which is a religion that bears huge love for humankind

8- Adding more fuel of hostility for all what is coming from the west

9- Affecting on decisions makers in the third world countries to practice injustice, and blockout the freedom of thought and beliefs of evil tendency and executing plans, which are against the humanity.

Let's look at all the positions fairly and objectively, our world now fall under hatred force and dominant sources which have a great effect in waging wars and disasters management, killing millions of females, olds, and children without any consideration to injustice and aggression. Where are the media slogans, which call for peace, freedom, and human respect? These campaigns targeted only the racism. These spiritual campaigns for war against fascism is fascist. It doesn't only abhors any mental quite dialogue based on rooting the civilized various religion, culture, and ethnic life but it also fights the wise voices and refuses the wisdom track and the wise situations. It went further through fighting the efforts of meeting, understanding, mutual respect, and accepting the others

We absolutely believe that this strange campaign against Islam is categorized in the frame of competition over the voters and getting all the sorts of support, including the political support, but there is extreme worry against this campaign because of its extremisms and enmity against Islam by eliminating Islamic features. Some of leaders of this campaign considered it as a war in extremist slang sentences, which might be accepted by moderate westerns due to their lack of Islamic principles which calls to freedom and refuses all types of discrimination, injustice, and slavery. These extremist campaigns aim to abstane the merge between cultures, genders that work against the cooperation between peoples; it is a sort of turning the facts up

Let us practice forgiveness, and mercy, which emerged from our great religions, and make them immortal methodology and claims upon the desire of peace messengers, and to see the actions in the logic of the brain which refuses any falseness or obliqueness whatever is the source

Let us unite against injustice and discrimination

Concepts of Moral Values in Islam

Concepts of Moral Values in Islam

Religious thinking concentrated its search on certainty in life, and on the reasons on human existence, to know mysterious secret of life. Fedriek Tylor was one of the early scholars who cared for the idea of religion. He observed that relationship between social behavior and religion is an interrelation. When religion concentrate on moral values such as permitted and prohibited, on good and evil, on reward and punishment, then it enters the details of society life. While Emile Durkheim
, on the other side, admits that religion regulates beliefs and behaviors related to sacred things, and that they resemble unity of believers. Religion then has more than one job. From the individual side, it assists them to feel security, stability and safety, to determine their identity, and group belongingness and their acceptance to values and beliefs that religion regulates. From the side of society it helps in regulating emotions and their sustainability, and this is one of the pillars of community continuity and sustainability. Passing over all dealing of sociologists in the field of moral values, we observe that it remind us, in details or summary, moral values as they had been seen in the ancient Greek paganism, or in Judaism, or Christianity, then it turn abruptly to its shapes, and forms in modern Europe, ignoring discussing their views, shapes and forms in Islam. But some Europeans during the nineteenth century tried to extract moral values and principles from the Holy Quran, but such trials never reached the stage of shaping practical foundations, or to offer them in the shape of a complete constitution of moral vales, in addition to that they are built on incorrect translation for the Holy Quran meanings. There is another worst situation which is found among seculars, who study values in Islam then compare them tot the values of Arabian life before Islam, or to what had been stated in the Torah or the Bible, then they decide that if values are matching between Islam and what its precedents, then this is an indicator that Islam revealed them from previous religions, and if there is difference, then this is an indicator that values are not absolute but relative. The aim of this is to distort the shape of Islam, and to decide that it didn’t bring any thing new to human life. They didn’t know that matching could come from that Islam is the source of values as it is in the previous religions, because it came from Allah who sent all messengers and prophets, and they didn’t know also that stating that values are relative is mistaken, and that it is more accurate to say that some societies are limiting their potentials and capacity to reach to the absolute right. The need for studying values from an Islamic perspective could be felt if we came to know that doubts cast by some intellectuals that Muslims are to abandon their moral and spiritual values if they are to seek scientific and technological progress and to seek merge to western life, and that it is impossible for Muslims to build on values, because the absence of values is the source that brought industry and science and that values shall limit space for achieving civilization. This is not true, because some nations achieved civilizations while they protect their identity and values such the Japanese. There are Muslim scholars who adhere to their Islamic values, theology and behavior and they achieved vast progress in scientific and technological fields. The Holy Quran is a methodology of morals and virtue, that is stated the rules of morals, and drew the path of right behavior that achieves happy life to all society individuals. Allah states in the Holy Quran (
Surely, this Qur'an guides to what is most right; and gives to the believers who do good deeds the glad tidings that they shall have a great reward) (Al-Isra: 09), and that (And if there comes to you guidance from ME, then whoso will follow MY guidance, will not go astray, nor will he come to grief;) (Taha: 123), and the Holy Quran is the constitution of morals in Islam. Such morals search for change through struggle and not on the concept of sociology, but on its Islamic concepts that aim to build on moral values not on physical benefits. It is change to the best in beliefs and in systems. It is changing polytheism to oneness, ignorance by knowledge, unemployment by work, poverty by richness, weakness by strength, and selfishness by solidarity, and vulgar by chastity, and all other values that Islam is calling for in the process of building human society. The criteria of progress and backwardness in Islam concept is unique. It is linking development to faith and guidance, and backwardness to infidelity and ashtray, even if they are linked to physical civilization and scientific benefits. Allah States (And if there comes to you guidance from ME, then whoso will follow MY guidance, will not go astray, nor will he come to grief (*) But whosoever will turn away from MY remembrance, his will be a straitened life) (Taha: 123-124), and the Holy Quran is very frank in keeping the ashtray on his agony, even if physical potentials are abundant, and this is the case of western life that are built solely on physical learning and experiment, and on old beliefs that are built on exchange in all its dealings. Allah States (Have they not traveled in the earth that they could see what was the end of those before them ? They were mightier than these in power and they left firmer marks in the earth. But ALLAH seized them for their sins, and they had no one to protect them from ALLAH (*) That was because their Messengers came to them with manifest Signs but they disbelieved; So ALLAH seized them. Surely, HE is Powerful, Severe in punishment) (Ghafir: 21-22), and He States (Have they not traveled in the earth so that they might see how evil was the end of those who were before them ? They were stronger than these in power, and they tilled the soil and populated it more and better than these have populated it. And their Messengers came to them with manifest Signs. And ALLAH would not wrong them, but they wronged their own souls.) (Al-Room: 09). Previous verses link the ideological factor to the change in society shape of life, even if physical potentials, strength and power are there. If we search in the formation of Muslim society, we shall see that it is built on a course that came from Lord of All Creations. This course is the base society is built on, and formed as it is ordered by Allah to his slaves, not on those sought by other people. In view of this Shariaa, Muslim community had been built, and work and production relations, and rules of life, individual and group moral bases, and principles of behavior, work laws, and all other society important aspects, that determine its path toward progress and development had been formed. This Islamic society is the society that enjoys its formation capacities that are distinguished from other human societies according to the following features:

First: that it is a Divine society that is built on Islamic ideology, and relation between its individuals is built on this ideology. It is clear the concentration of the Mohammedan Message on planting ideology of Islam in Muslims life for thirteen years, then He turned to orders and prohibitions that are met with full obey from all Islamic society individuals at that time. It is clear also the concentration of the Holy Quran on the meaning of ideology and faith in what had been Stated by Allah ( O ye who believe ! believe in ALLAH and HIS Messenger and in the Book which HE had revealed to HIS Messenger, and the Book which HE revealed before it. And whoso disbelieves in ALLAH and HIS angels, and HIS Books and HIS Messengers and the Last Day, has surely strayed far away.) (Al-Nisaa: 136).

Second: it is an global community. It is a society that is not built on race, nationality, or ethnic. These are features that disappear when their sources are absent. It is a society that is open for all people from all races, languages or colors. Society that is built on the Orders of Allah (Say, `O mankind, truly I am a Messenger to you all from ALLAH) (Al-Aaraf: 158).

Third: it is cooperative society. One of the main and most important features of it is cooperation and solidarity, all its individuals are one unity, cooperatives, loving, and support each other on the hardships of life and crises. The Noble Prophet said that (Believer to believer are like one building, one ties the other).

Fourth: it is an advisory society. The main benefit of this is that every individual believes that he is support others seeking their benefits, and that Muslim is like a mirror for his brothers Muslim, and that one of the main duties of all Muslims is promotion of virtue and prevention of vice, as Allah States (And the believers, men and women, are friends of another. They enjoined good and forbid evil and observe Prayer and pay the Zakaat and obey ALLAH and HIS Messenger. It is these on whom ALLAH will have mercy. Surely, ALLAH is Mighty and Wise) (Al-Tawba: 71). Sure that all those who try to study Muslim social history shall find that moral values are a part of the religion principles, could not be split of it. They are constant origins that do not change on life and dci********. And that main principles of Islam urge all Muslims to stick to moral values, for this is the main pillar for Muslim nation victory, towards its development and sustainable human and materialistic civilization. If we look in moral value and supreme examples, we shall find that they collapsed before Muslims historical collapse, and we know that the Islamic religion call to adhere to moral values through stick of religious and moral values. Religion calls for control of human behavior and direct it toward correct behavior and morals follow this behavior, so, in most cases, we shall find religious controls mix with moral controls, on the contrary of non-Muslim societies, which follow its moral controls from society culture or from mind. Religion in the concept of Islam is the course which gives moral values their sacred and honest, which makes individual feels that he is a monitor on his own values and behavior, and that creates a self-deterrent. This is what called in Islam the “religious deterrent”. Islam determines moral values which society is to follow, and give it a clear stable reference of systems that all individuals are to follow, and it strictly applied a group of controls that find its strength and validity from religion controls, that in majority cases is left for human conscience and his fear to his Lord. So lying, envy, malice, slander, arrogance, scant, and all kinds of such behaviors are prohibited in Islam, and contradict to good moral values, so controls are applied to prevent individual from performing as such.

Study of Values by Muslim Scholars: Muslim scholars cared for moral values under different names such as (Faith Sections) and (Decencies) or (Virtues), (Morals) or (Great Sins). What could be termed negative values cold be found in Al-Qazwinin (Summary of Faith Sections), or in (Great Sins) for Imam Al-Thahabi, or what could be termed the Positive Values that could be found under the title (Decencies) for Ibn Al-Moataz, or in (Morals and Biographies) for Ibn Hazm, and we find that Al-Ghazali in his book (Restoring Religion Sciences) casts many positive values, and that much negative values could be found under the title (Syndromes). Ibn Al-Qayem also is concerned in his book (Passers Stairs) to the values of ideologies, while on the other hand Al-Nawawi in his book (Riyadh Al-Saleheen) is concerned more with moral values, and Al-Shatibi in his book (Aims in Shariaa) divides them to necessary, need and promotion. During the contemporary era, there is Lutfi Ahmad who divided values in Islam under ten titles : Slavery values, human admiration values, faith values, integration values, guidance values, repentance values, moderate values, calling and prayer values, comprehension values, and selection values, while Abdul Qadir Hashim Ramzi said that values in Islam could be divvied into materialistic, human, moral and spiritual.

Sources of moral values in Islam: the source of values in Islam differ as to source. If we mean Islamic values, then the source would be Holy Quran and Noble Prophetic Sunnah, and this means that values should be absolute and stable, and if we mean Muslims values in their societies then their sources would be numbers and could differ from one society to anther, but there could be some common points. Such sources of values in Muslims societies could be referred back to traditions and habits, resembling other nations, or intellectual and civilization citing, innovation in religion and other kinds of sources.

Features of moral values in view of Islam

features of such values could be summarized as follows:

a. They are logic: that they conform with the nature of good human thinking. No one among philosophers tried to turn down one of these values cast in the Holy Quran. Allah said his Holy Book (And truly, it is a mighty Book, (*)
Falsehood cannot approach it either from before it nor from behind it. It is a revelation from the Wise, the Praiseworthy
.) (Fussilat: 41-42).

b. They are realistic: that they match real life and human nature and conform with change in all situations and during all eras. They are not absolute ideals or impossible imaginations, or strange from human nature.

c. They are useful: that they are useful for both human and society in this life, and could lead to more benefits in the other life.

d. They are balanced: that they are not for individuals or to society separately. Instead they are medium built on balance and consistency, between individual and society benefits.

e. They are the foundation of society: that they conform between physical and materialistic needs, between soul and body, between rights and duties, under the supervision of fair authority of the Holy Quran.

f. They are eternal: they are cited from the Sacred Shariaa of the Holy Quran and from the religion of Islam which Allah accepted as the sole religion for all humans.

g. They are internally consistent: the source of values in Islam is the Holy Book and Sunnah, from this point it shall not be thought that there could be any kind of dispute or conformance, as Allah Says (Will they not, then, meditate upon the Qur'an ? Had it been from anyone other than ALLAH, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy.) (Al-Nisaa: 82). The most important thing here is that sources of values in Islam should be thought of as coming from one unit.

From this point values in Islam could not be the thing that is pleasant for one person during any time alone. In this case Islam called them desires that all Muslims are to confront and limit. And that they could not be extracted from the human experience or from the social activity. They are divine not left for the society, or to its activities or experiments. Values in Islam are good meaning without any kind of guidance such as love, it is for known types, and such as conviction which should not turn to dullness or inactivity. Values in Islam are the courses that determine positive and negative attitudes, and not left for motivations only, they are moved by faith sometimes. Values in Islam are not as communist term their values. Work is one of the values of Islam, and not all values of Islam is what is thought of as to conform with mid, for mind in Islam is a means for understanding decided values.

Aims of Moral Values in Islam

Moral values in Islam aim to determine human activity in a Muslim society, and to promote and control their behavior to the benefit of the whole society and its individuals, and to bring for all individuals a good conclusion in the other life. It aims to integration human attributes, behavior, activity that aims to prepare followers of the Lord, whom Islam described them and clarified the path of goodness for them (
It is not righteousness that you turn your faces to the East or the West, but truly righteous is he who believes in ALLAH and the Last Day and the angels and the Book and the Prophets, and spends his money out of love for HIM, on the kindred and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and those who ask for charity and for ransoming the captives; and observes prayer and pays the Zakat; and those who fulfill their promise when they have made one, and the patient in poverty and afflictions and the steadfast in the time of war; it is these who have proved truthful and it is these who are truly God-Fearing.) (Al-Baqara: 177), and formed their medium passage in dealing in their lives (And seek, in that which ALLAH has given thee, the Home of the Hereafter; and neglect not thy lot in this world; and do good to others as ALLAH has done good to thee; And seek not to create mischief in the land. Verily, ALLAH loves not those who create mischief) (Al-Qasas: 77). Moral values in Islam then, whether they are individual such as sincerity, patience, charity love, soul combating, or common such as self feeling, obligation, and call for Islam, are meant to bring individual and society benefit, and protect human benefit. From this point we determine the main foundations of the value theory in Islam as to the following objectives:

a. First Objective: Oneness and worshipping: (most common foundations of Muslim life is that human should seek to achieve the Oneness of the Lord, which is a strict respond to all what humans are thinking about the continent, life, and living, life before and after him, and that is what all humans should use to seek true worshipping to the Lord. This is the system revealed from the Holy Book and Prophetic Sunnah.

b. Second Objective: to prepare the faithful individual( for system of value in Islam seek to prepare the individual with a strong building, who seek to achieve the Say of Allah, Praise the Lord, (Say, `My Prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are all for ALLAH, the Lord of the worlds) (Al-Anaam: 162). This is a portray that differs from the portray of good citizen in other contemporary systems. The good person in human systems could kill, be unfair, and could seek to built his self society on the account on other societies, but the good human in Islam is like Abu Bakr and Omer, May Allah be in Consent with them, who urge to avoid torture, burning or killing children, and to avoid killing trees or demolition of churches.

c. Third Objective: is Balancing as Islamic value system is built on balance as the principle of everything. Allah Says (and HE has created everything, and has determined its proper measure. ) (Al-Forqan: 2), and Allah Says (And there is not a thing but are limitless treasures thereof with US and WE sent it not down except in a known measure) (Al-Hijr: 21). For all this Islam seeks to integrate all life aspects materialistic or spiritual, and seek to build individual objective along with the society aims and call for all to integrate words with deeds, and to balance between human needs in this life and his wishes in the other life.

d. Correct Morals: Islam makes the moral side a measure for good deeds, and the main side in values is the main objectives for the message of Islam. The Noble Prophet came to complete good morals, and Islam cares for development of moral feeling in human nature, and makes correctness the guide of human behavior both publicly and privately, as Islam assures the moral side in all worships.


عقوبة الرجم / Stoning Punishment

عقوبة الرجم  / محمد اللحيدان :


الرجم هو عقوبة شنيعة , الإسلام يعلم مدى شناعة هذه العقوبة , ولكن لأن الإسلام يرى في الفضيلة قيمة عليا يجب حمايتها و لأنه يريد منع وجود اطفال ابرياء يتعذبون في الحياة لعدم ملكهم لأب وأم صالحين يرعوهم شرع هذه العقوبة , ومع ذلك فإن الإسلام عملياً لا يرغب بأن تقام هذه العقوبة ويحرص على ألا يضطر إلى إيقاعها وسأوضح ذلك بعد قليل

لمن هذه العقوبة :
تختص هذه العقوبة بالخيانة الزوجية أو بمن سبق له الزواج , وتشمل الرجل والمرأة على حد سواء , فلو مارس الجنس الزوج أو الزوجة مع آخر بطريقة غير شرعية فإنه يستحق هذه العقوبة , أما إذا مارس الجنس رجل أو امرأة غير متزوجين مع آخر بطريقة غير شرعية فإن العقوبة هي الجلد للإيلام فقط

الإسلام لا يرغب بإيقاع هذه العقوبة :
الإسلام فرض هذه العقوبة , ولكنه عملياً يتجنب إيقاع هذه العقوبة , ويظهر هذا لنا فيما يلي
- جاء رجل إلى الرسول محمد عليه الصلاة والسلام و أخبره أنه وقع في الزنا (أي مارس الجنس مع امرأة بطريقة غير شرعية ) فأعرض عنه الرسول , حتى كرر الرجل قوله اربع مرات , فقال الرسول: (هل بك جنون , هل أنت محصن) ومحصن اي متزوج , فرد : بأنه ليس بمجنون وبأنه محصن . فقال الرسول : ( لعلك قبلت ) أي أنك قبلتها فقط , فرد الرجل : لا بل زنيت . قال الرسول : ( لعلك ضممت ) أي أنك ضممتها فقط , فرد الرجل : بل زنيت .الرسول يحاول صرف الرجل حتى لا يضطر لإيقاع العقوبة عليه .
- وفي هذه القصة جاء أنه مع بدئ تنفيذ العقوبة هرب الرجل فأدركه بعض منفذي العقوبة و أتموها فلما رجعوا إلى الرسول أخبروه بما حدث فقال : ( هلا تركتموه ليتوب فيتوب الله عليه ) الرسول يقول كان من الأفضل أن تتركوه يهرب فيتوب ويتوب الله عليه دون الحاجة للعقوبة
- أيضاً لنلحظ أن الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام لم يسأله عن المرأة التي شاركته الخطيئه
- ومما يدل على أن الإسلام لا يرغب بإيقاع هذه العقوبة عملياً , أنه اشترط شروط تعجيزية لإيقاع هذه العقوبة , فإما أن يقر المذنب بخطئه دون إكراه , أو أن يشهد الواقعة أربعة رجال ولا يكفي أن يروا الطرفين في خلوه , بل يجب أن يروا جميعا عضو الرجل يدخل في عضو المرأة وهذا يكاد يكون من المستحيل

تطهيراً وليس احتقاراً
قد نتساءل ما الذي دفع الرجل للإعتراف بخطيأته للرسول عليه الصلاة السلام ؟ السبب هو أن الإسلام لا يرى هذه العقوبه كحتقار لصاحبها بل يراها كتطهير له . مع العلم بأن الإسلام يفضل أن لا يخبر الإنسان عن نفسه ما لم يصل للمحاكمة بل يتوب بينه وبين الله

ختاماً :
تبين لنا أن هذه العقوبة مقتصرة على حالة معينه وليس كل مرتكب لزنا رجل أو امرأة يكون هذا عقابه , وتبين أن هذه العقوبة تشمل الرجل والمرأة على حد سواء .
كما أن الإسلام قد أوجد الكثير من الأمور التي تمنع ابتداءً وقوع مثل هذه الخطيئة وهي الخيانة الزوجية وليس هذا موضع ذكرها , وقد شرع هذه العقوبة كخطوة أخيرة تحمي المجتمع وتمنع من وجود أطفال ابرياء معذبين لا يوجد لهم ام واب صالحين بسبب أنهم كانوا نتيجت خطيئه , ومع ذلك فإن الإسلام عملياً يرغب بأن لا تقع هذه العقوبة ويظهر هذا بالقصه الواردة عن الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام وبالشروط التعجيزية التي شرعها لهذه العقوبة
وكما أن هناك من يعيب وجود مثل هذه العقوبة مع أنها موجوده نظرياً ولا تكاد توجد عملياً فإن هناك من يعيب كثرة حالات الخيانه الزوجية في بعض المجتمعات .
العلاقة بيننا ينبغي أن لا تتوتر لأجل جزئية معينه خصوصاً ما دامت لا تتعلق في التعامل بيننا , كما لا يجب أن تغطي الكثير من محاسن وإيجابيات كل منا , مع العلم بأن هذه العقوبة على طول القرون لم تقع إلا بشكل محدود جداً للأسباب آنفة الذكر
نعم قد لا تقبلون بهذه العقوبة في مجتمعكم الأمريكي , ولكن علينا نحن كما أنه عليكم أيضاً أن نحترم الخصوصية الثقافية لكل منا... الإسلام دين رحمة وسلام علينا حتى نفهمه أن ننظر إليه بشكل موضوعي وشامل .



Stoning Punishment

Stoning is a severe penalty. Islam knows how horrible it is, but sees a high value in virtue that must be protected. Islam aims to prevent endurance of innocent children who suffer in life; for not having a good mother and father who take care of them. Yet, Islam, practically, does not want this penalty to be applied, and I will clarify this later

? For whom this Punishment

This penalty is regarding the marital infidelity, and both men and women will have this penalty alike. If a husband or a wife commits adultery then he or she deserves this penalty. But in case a man or a woman is unmarried, then they have a different penalty

Islam does not want to apply this punishment:

Though Islam imposes this penalty, yet Islam avoids applying it, for instance

A man came to the Prophet Mohammad (may peace be upon him) and confessed that he committed adultery. The Prophet turned away from him, but the man repeated that he committed adultery. Again, the Prophet turned away until the man did that four times, and as he testified four times against himself, the Prophet asked him: "Are you mad?" The man answered: "No." the prophet asked: "Are you married?" The man answered: "Yes." Then the Prophet said: "perhaps you just kissed her." the man said: "no I committed adultery." and then the Prophet said: "maybe you have just cuddled her." the man said: "no I have committed adultery." The Prophet was trying to dismiss the man in order not to punish him

-when they started the penalty, the man escaped but they caught him and punished him. When they told the Prophet what had happened he said:"Why you did not leave him so he may repent and God may forgive him." Thus, we find Prophet Mohammed preferring him to escape
- Furthermore, we notice that the Prophet did not ask the man about the woman who shared him the sin

- Practically, Islam does not want this penalty to be applied; hence, Islam puts almost impossible conditions in order to apply it. Either the guilty confesses his sin without coercion, or a testimony of four men who witnessed the adultery, and that is almost impossible

Purification, not contempt:

We may wonder what has prompted the man to confess his sin to the Prophet. The reason is that Islam does not consider this penalty as a contempt but rather purification. However, it is preferable in Islam to repent to Allah instead of informing others about his sin, unless the guilty person is asked for trail

In conclusion, we find this penalty is limited to a particular case, and not for all adulterers, and this penalty is for men or women alike

Islam has found many obstacles to prevent marital infidelity and penalty is merely a final step to protect society and prevent the existence of innocent children as a result of an illegitimate affair. who have no parents

Some people criticize this penalty, though it exists theoretically and rarely exists practically. However, many criticize the numerous incidence of adultery in some communities

The relationship between us should not be in tension due to a particular matter, which is accepted in our society, and which has nothing to do with our dealing with each other. Again, we confirm that over centuries, applying this penalty has been limited and for the reasons mentioned above

Sure, you may not accept this penalty in your society; however, both of us should respect the other's cultural background. Islam is the religion of mercy and peace, in order to understand it, you should look at it in a subjective and a comprehensive manner


Jihad in Islam:

الجهاد في الإسلام :


بُعث محمدٌ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - بالإسلام ديناً جديداً خاتماً للرسالات السماوية ، ومصدقاً لميعاد عيسى - عليه السلام - حينما بشر بنبي يأتي من بعده ، وكانت الأديان متوافرة ، والمتمسكون بها كُثر ، وقد يرون في ظهور هذا الدين خطراً ومنافسة لأديانهم ، فيسعون لمحاربته وأهله ، ويشتد سعيهم كلما رأوا دخول الناس فيه أفواجاً ، وتركهم لما كانوا عليه من الأديان .
وهذا ما حدث .. فلما أظهر النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - دعوته ، حورب وأوذي من قبل أقرب الناس إليه ( عشيرته ) وبقية العرب ، وطال الأذى كل من دخل في هذا الدين مؤمناً به .
وشاء الله عز وجل أن يؤمن بهذا الدين أهل ( يثرب ) فهاجر إليهم الرسول - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وهناك أقام أول دولة إسلامية عرفها الإنسان .
ولما كانت هذه الدولة تواجه خطر الطغيان ، كان اهتمام النبي بأمر القوة غاية في الضرورة ، فلن يتم لهذه الدولة البقاء ما لم تكن لديها ما تدفع به الباغي ، وتحمي به الرسالة .

المسلمون يعتقدون اعتقاداً جازماً أنهم على حق ، وأنَّ من واجبهم تبليغ الدعوة للناس كافة ، فالإسلام حق للبشرية جمعاء لا بد من إيصال حقهم إليهم ، ويعلمون أيضاً أن الناس لن يتركوا لهم حرية إيمانهم وحرية دعوتهم لدينهم ، ومن هنا كانت في الإسلام فريضة ( الجهاد ) والتي تهدف لأمرين :
حماية المسلمين وأرضهم من ظلم غير المسلمين واعتدائهم .
إيصال الإسلام للناس وحمايته ممن يريد القضاء عليه .

فما هو الجهاد ؟ وكيف هو ؟ وهل هو فرض الدين بالقوة ؟ ومحاولة للسيطرة على العالم ؟

نسعى - بحول الله - لمحاولة الإجابة على هذه الأسئلة من خلال النظر في الشريعة الإسلامية و أهدافها من هذه الفريضة ، وننبه في البداية إلى أمرين :
الأول : مصادر الدين الإسلامي التي قام عليها وتستمد منها كافة التشريعات والأحكام هما : القرآن الكريم ، وأخبار الرسول محمد - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وهي موجودة اليوم ، وينبغي التفريق بينها وبين تصرفات المسلمين .
الثاني : في هذا المقال لمحة موجزة ، وكلمات مختصرة ، ومن يريد الاستزادة عن الإسلام فليراجع ما كتب عنه ، شرط أن يكون الكاتب منصفاً ممن لا يحملون الحقد المسبق و العدواة للدين الإسلامي ، وأن يكون هذا الكاتب ممن يسلكون المنهج الصحيح في الكتابة عن الإسلام عبر مصادره الأصلية .

معنى الجهاد :

الجهاد في اللغة العربية يعني ( بذل الجهد ) وهو في الشريعة الإسلامية لمعنيين ، خاص وعام :
فالعام : كل جهد مبذول في التدين بهذا الدين سواء كان بالقلب كالتصديق واليقين و مدافعة وساوس الشيطان والنفس ، أم باللسان كالحديث عن هذا الدين والدعوة إليه و الدفاع عنه ، أم بالبدن كالقيام بالفرائض البدنية من الحج والسفر للدعوة والقتال .
الخاص : هو قتال الكفار لأجل نشر الإسلام أو الدفاع عنه .

معنى قتال الكفار :

قد يتبادر لذهن الإنسان أن الإسلام يقصد بالجهاد قتال كل من لا يدين بالإسلام ، ولا شك أن هذا مفهوم غير صحيح على الإطلاق ، ولتبيين معنى قتال الكفار في الإسلام نقول : إنه على نوعين :
قتال دفع : أن يدافع المسلمون عن أنفسهم بقتال الكافر الذي بغى عليهم وقاتلهم .
قتال طلب : وهو الذي يحدث حينما يقوم المسلمون بواجبهم في نشر دينهم .
فالأول لا يشك منصف عاقل في مشروعيته وأنه حق للدفاع عن النفس ، أما الثاني فقد يتساءل الإنسان : هل يعني قتال الطلب أن نقاتل كل من لم يدخل الإسلام ؟
ولكي نجيب على هذا السؤال نبين أقسام الكفار في الإسلام .

الكفار في الإسلام :

صنف الإسلام الأشخاص الذين لا يدينون به على ثلاثة أصناف :
المعاهدون . 2) الذميون . 3) الحربيون .
فالأول يشمل كل من يرتبط مع المسلمين بعهد و اتفاق ، وحكمه في الإسلام : يجب الوفاء بالعهد وعدم نقضه وعدم الاعتداء على المعاهد .
الثاني يشمل كل من أراد البقاء على دينه والدخول تحت حكم المسلمين ودفع الجزية ، وحكمه في الإسلام : تجب حمايته ورعاية مصالحه ويحرم قتله والاعتداء عليه .
الثالث يشمل كل من لا يرتبط مع المسلمين بعلاقة هدنة وبينه وبينهم عداوة ، وهذا النوع هو المقصود بجهاد الطلب ، فيخير بين الخيارات الثلاث : الدخول في الإسلام أو البقاء على دينه ودفع الجزية أو القتال - مع إمكانية تجاوز هذه الخيارات من خلال طلب العهد والصلح مع المسلمين - .
نعلم من خلال هذا التقسيم الإسلامي أنَّ الإسلام سعى لتضييق دائرة القتال ، وخصها بصنف واحد فقط في ظرف حرج لا يوجد بديل عن القتال فيه ، ومع ذلك فإن هذا القتال في الإسلام يتميز بما يلي :

لا يجوز قتل الصغير ولا النساء ولا الشيوخ ، فلا يقتل إلا من رفع السلاح في وجه المسلمين .
في أثناء القتال قد يعصم دم الكافر الذي يقاتل إن نطق بالشهادة ، أو تلقى أمان من أحد من المسلمين ، ويسجل التاريخ مواقف كثيرة تجلى فيها حرص الإسلام على حقن الدماء ، نذكر منها : أحدها لرسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - حينما علم أن أحد الصحابة وهو أسامة بن زيد قتل في أحد المعارك رجل من الكفار قال : لا إله إلا الله ، فغضب الرسول وحرّم ذلك الفعل ، مع أن الكافر قالها بعد أن قتل من المسلمين عدداً ولما رفع أسامة السيف فوق رأسه ، فأصر الرسول - صلى الله عليه وسلم - على منع هذا الفعل ، الموقف الثاني لعمر بن الخطاب ( الخليفة الثاني ) حينما قال لأحد الصحابة : لو أشرت لكافر في المعركة ففهم ذلك آماناً فألقى سلاحه فقتلته لقتلتك ! والموقف الثالث : للرسول - صلى الله عليه وسلم - حينما قدم مكة منتصراً بعد أن طرده أهلها وآذوه وقاتلوه ، فلما دخلها فاتحاً جاءت امرأة من المسلمين إلى الرسول تخبره عن أحد المقاتلين الكفار الذين دخلوا منزلها وأنها أعطته الأمان ، فقال النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - ( قد أجرنا من أجرت يا أم هانئ ) وهذه كنيتها ، ولما ظفر الرسول بالكفار الذين آذوه قال لهم : اذهبوا فأنتم الطلقاء ، وحرّم دماءهم وأموالهم .
يحرم في حال القتال التعرض للعباد والرهبان والأحبار ومعابدهم وكنائسهم ، ولا يجوز إلزامهم بالدخول في الإسلام ولا أخذ الجزية منهم ، ولو كان الإسلام يسعى لفرض الدين بالقوة لفرضه على هؤلاء .

من خلال الكلام السابق يتبين لنا أمور منها :

أن الجهاد إنما هو لحماية الإسلام كدين وحماية المسلمين كأفراد .
أنّ الجهاد لا يسعى لحرب كل الكفار بل لفئة ضيقة منهم يضطر المسلمون لحربهم .
يحرم في الجهاد قتل غير المقاتلين من المدنيين والأبرياء .
لا يسعى الإسلام للقضاء على الأديان الأخرى أو إلغائها .

إذاً .. الجهاد إنما هو ترشيد لقوة المسلم التي لا بد أن يستخدمها الناس فيما بينهم ، وحرص على تجنب الظلم والاعتداء عند استخدام هذه القوة ، وجعل هذه القوة سبيل لتحقيق السلام والأمن للعالم ، فلم يرسل النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - إلا رحمة للعالمين .

ويجب أن نفرق بين الإسلام وبين التاريخ الإسلامي ، فالإسلام دين سماوي نقي مليء بالأحكام والتوجيهات التي أنزلت لخير البشرية في الدنيا والآخرة ، والمسلمون بشر يخطئون ويقعون في ما يخالف دينهم .

واقع المسلمين اليوم مؤسف ، فهم يعانون الأمرين نتيجة الظلم والقهر من القوى العالمية ، ويشعرون بأن حقوقهم متجاهلة ، وأدى الأمر ببعض أفرادهم إلى القيام بأعمال إرهابية انتقامية لا تمت للإسلام بصلة ، بل هي نتيجة طبيعية للأذى الذي يشعرون به من بعض الأنظمة العالمية وبالعربية .

وفي الختام .. فإن دين الإسلام مليء بالتوجيهات الخاصة بالتعايش مع أهل الكتاب ( اليهود والنصارى ) والمتعلقة بالزواج منهم ومخالطتهم وحوارهم ودعوتهم ، والقرآن مليء بالخطابات الموجهة لأهل الكتاب ، فكيف نقول إن الإسلام يسعى للقضاء على اليهود والنصارى ؟
يقول الله في القرآن : ( لا إكراه في الدين قد تبين الرشد من الغي )

وصلى الله على محمد ..



In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

Jihad in Islam:

Mohammed -peace be upon him- was sent to introduce Islam as the last heavenly revelation, and confirming Jesus prophecy that a prophet will come after him. However, many believers of old religions saw the new religion "Islam" as a threat to theirs, thus they decided to fight it and its people in order to prevent people from embracing it. Therefore, when Muhammad-peace be upon him- invited people to embrace Islam he was fought and harmed even by his own people, his relatives; Not only him, but anyone who believed in his religion.

When people of Yathreb believed in the prophet's religion, the prophet immigrated to them and established the first Islamic country.
However, since the country faced the danger of oppression, the Prophet was interested in having power to maintain the country and to protect Islam.

Muslims believe they are following the right path and since knowing Islam is a right for all people, it is Muslims' duty to invite all people to embrace Islam and it is the people's choice either to accept it or not. They know that some people will never give them the freedom of faith and of calling for their religion, Therefore Islam obligated (Jihad), which aimed to:

1) Protect Muslims and their lands against the injustice and the attack of non Moslems.
2) spread Islam to all people and protect it from those who want to destroy it.

Hence, What is jihad? Is it imposing Islam by force? Or is it an attempt to dominate the world?

In order to answer these questions we must consider two things:

1- the Islamic sources are the Qur'an and the Hadeeth, the prophet's sayings, and we must distinguish between Islam and Muslims behavior.

2- this essay aims to provide a brief information regarding Islam, and if you want to know more, read books by unbiased writers whose works are based on the original sources of Islam.

The meaning of Jihad:
linguistically, Jihad means: effort, and in the Islamic law, it has its general and specific meanings:
Generally it means: the effort made for Islam by believing in it, spreading it among People, defending it,  practicing; like praying and pilgrimage etc.

Specifically it means: fighting infidels for spreading and defending Islam.

The meaning of fighting infidels:

Some people might think that Jihad means fighting non Muslims, and this is absolutely not true, the meaning of fighting infidels is:

1) Fighting to defend: Muslims fight who attacks and fights them.
2) Fighting to demand: Muslims fight in order to spread Islam.

The first type is legitimately a right for self-defense. However, regarding the second type one may ask: does it mean fighting whoever refuses to embrace Islam?
To answer this question we should clarify the kinds of disbelievers.

Disbelievers in Islam:

Islam classifies people who do not believe in Islam to three types:

1) Confederates
2) Free non-Muslims living under Muslims rules
3) Fighters

The first includes whoever has an agreement with Muslims, and Muslims should keep their agreement and never attack them.

The second includes whoever lives under the Muslims rule and pay the tribute, and Islam should protect him and his interests. Therefore, attacking or killing him is forbidden in Islam.

The third includes the enemies of Islam and they will be asked to choose between three options: embracing Islam, paying the tribute and live under Muslims rule or fighting. However, there is a possibility of avoiding these options by making a peace agreement.

Accordingly, Islam attempts to avoid fighting unless there is no alternative but fighting. However, fighting in Islam follows certain conditions:

1- Islam has forbidden killing children, elderly, or females. Killing will be only for those who attempt to kill Muslims.
2- During fighting, Muslims should not kill any one who embraces Islam or is protected by a Muslim; there are many incidents which verify Islam's concern in avoiding bloodshed. For instance, the prophet –peace be upon him- was annoyed when he knew that a Muslim, a friend of him, had killed an infidel who embraced Islam during the war, and the prophet had condemned this act and forbidden it. Moreover, Omar, the second caliph, said to one of his friends: "in a battle, if you gave a gesture to a non Muslim and he understood it as a sign of safety and he threw his weapon and you killed him, I will kill you." Another incident is when the prophet –peace be upon him- conquered Mecca after being attacked, harmed and banished by its people, a woman came to him and told him that an infidel entered her house and asked her to protect him and she agreed, the prophet replied: " Om Hani, her name, we will protect your fugitive." Thereafter, when the prophet met the people who had harmed him he told them: "go you are free." And he forbade shedding their blood or taking their money.   

3- When fighting, it is forbidden to attack worshipers and monks, or their temples and churches, nor force them to embrace Islam or to take a tribute from them. Therefore, if Islam seeks to impose religion by force then it will force them to be Muslims.

Hence, what we have mentioned above show you the following:

1- Jihad aims to protect Islam as a religion and Muslims as individuals.
2- Jihad is not seeking war to fight any disbeliever, but fight a certain group when Muslims are forced to.
3- In Jihad it is forbidden to kill non-combatants and innocent civilians.
4- Islam does not seek to eliminate other religions or cancel them.

Therefore, jihad is a mean for the Muslim strength, and it seeks to avoid injustice and aggression when using this force, and to make it a way of achieving peace and security all around the world.

You should distinguish between Islam and Islamic history. Islam is a pure heavenly religion which provides guidelines for the benefit of mankind in this world and hereafter. On the other hand, Muslims are human beings; some might make mistakes and do things against their religion. 

Unfortunately, nowadays, Muslims are suffering injustice and oppression by international forces.  Consequently, some Muslims have made vengeful terrorist acts, which are not related to Islam, but a normal result of ignoring their rights either by Arabic or international systems.

In conclusion, Islam gives guidance on coexistence with Jews and Christians regarding marriage and dialogue. Moreover, the Qur'an is full of speeches directed to Jews and Christians, thus, Islam does not seek to destroy them, as it mentioned in the Holly Qur'an: "There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who reject the false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower." (256)( Surat Al-Baqra)